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  • Design and synthesis of artificial receptors.:

    This dissertation consists of four chapters. The first chapter provides an in-depth background of synthetic receptors for recognitions of phosphorylated molecules. This chapter covers synthetic receptors developed within the last two decades, and it focuses on the diverse functionalities and detection techniques involved in the receptor design.

  • Self-assembled porphyrinnanostructures:

    Porphyrins and related tetrapyrroles have been extensively studied because of their importance in biological processes and they are often used in the development of artificial photosynthesis, catalysis, and sensor systems. Challenges in the development of functional nanoscale porphyrin systems are many, including the need to organize the porphyrins (e.g., to facilitate processes such as energy- and electron transfer) and to couple the porphyrin nanostructures to other nanoscale components (e.g., catalytic elements and conductors) to produce multifunctional nanoscale systems.

  • Porphyrinoids for Chemical Sensor Applications:

    orphyrins and related macrocycles have been intensively exploited as sensing materials in chemical sensors, since in these devices they mimic most of their biological functions, such as reversible binding, catalytic activation, and optical changes. Such a magnificent bouquet of properties allows applying porphyrin derivatives to different transducers, ranging from nanogravimetric to optical devices, also enabling the realization of multifunctional chemical sensors, in which multiple transduction mechanisms are applied to the same sensing layer.

  • Distance Measurement by Ultrasonic Sensor:

    This system is used as a way to manage the consumption of energy optimally. It defines an easy way to save energy by controlling the switching of loads in a room only based on the number of persons entering the room.

  • Street lights that Glow on Detecting Vehicle Movement:

    The major advantage of using LEDs as street lamps is that their intensity can be controlled by controlling the power supply to the LEDs. By sensing the arrival of vehicles, the LED street lights can be made to be switched on only at the time when the vehicle passes through it. This helps to save a relevant amount of energy