Conceptually 4D-CAD is a medium representing time and space— a type of graphic. simulation of a process. In construction, a 4D animation simulates the process of. transforming space over time and reflects the four-dimensional nature of engineering.
Collaborative robots, autonomous equipment, drone-based inspection, and laser-based terrain mapping reduce labor costs and increase accuracy. Further, companies use advanced materials such as self-healing concrete, engineered wood, and nanomaterials in modular construction and 3D printing.
Artificial Intelligence refers to machines chiefly computers working like humans. In AI, machines perform tasks like speech recognition, problem-solving and learning, etc. Machines can work and act like a human if they have enough information. So in artificial intelligence, knowledge engineering plays a vital role. The relation between objects and properties are established to implement knowledge engineering.
Construction equipment and accessories are a vital part of any structural engineering works or infrastructural projects. Massive equipment and construction vehicles are involved in excavation and digging of huge quantities of earth, compacting and leveling, transfer of materials and heavy loads, placement of construction materials, and construction process.
In the last twenty years we have seen radical changes take place in the design of buildings. Present-day constructions are incorporating more and more elements which are "intelligent", providing a high degree of flexibility. Electronic systems control the regulation of light, temperature and energy flows, security devices are automated, even facades and the internal structures are becoming "intelligent".
The construction industry is a major economic sector, but it is plagued with inefficiencies and low productivity. Robotics and automated systems have the potential to address these shortcomings; however, the level of adoption in the construction industry is very low. This paper presents an investigation into the industry-specific factors that limit the adoption in the construction industry.
Journal of Information Technology in Construction is an Open Access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of Open Access.
Despite the benefits offered by offsite construction, as a percentage, the offsite market is still relatively small. This phenomena is complex; but for brevity, includes a myriad of factors, not least: lack of awareness; supply chain challenges (capacity and knowledge); cultural perception; lack of viable business process models/solutions; and paucity of skills (design/manufacturing/construction). However, many governments are still promoting the offsite agenda through various conduits.
Process simulation is a model-based representation of chemical, physical, biological, and other technical processes and unit operations in software. Basic prerequisites for the model are chemical and physical properties of pure components and mixtures, of reactions, and of mathematical models which, in combination, allow the calculation of process properties by the software.